Free Excel Tutorial : Relative & Absolute Addressing

The auto-fill option also allows you to copy the formulas into multiple cells. For example, if you have the formula (=A1+B1) in cell C1, by dragging the cell you can copy the formula to the following cells. That is if you drag the cells to C5, the formula that is automatically filled in for each cell will be as C2 (=A2+B2), C3 (=A3+B3) and so on. When we use only the unique address that excel provides to each cell as in the above example we use the relative address. Excel will also adjust the row and column reference when we copy and paste the formula to a different cell. Sometimes when you are working on data and require a row or column or even a single cell to be kept constant in the formula, we will not be able to use relative address. Just by adding the $ symbol before the row or column reference we can keep the row or the column constant. This is known as absolute address. Absolute addressing can be used in 3 different ways, as listed in the table below:

Sl. No. Reference style Description
1 $A$1 This style will keep the particular cell constant in all the formulas while using the auto-fill option or while copying the formula.
2 $A1 This style will keep the column reference constant in all formulas. Only the row reference will be changed while using the auto-fill option or while copying the formula.
3 A$1 This style will keep the row reference constant in all formulas. Only the column reference will be changed while using the auto-fill option or while copying the formula.

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